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Ethiopia: It is known, that propolis can be harvested from every hive type and 95% of Ethiopian beekeepers use traditional hives. [1] [2] [3] While the yield of propolis is higher in traditional hives, the quality is lower due to a contamination of pure propolis with beeswax, hive debris or body parts of bees. [2] Nuru et al. (2002) conducted a study, where propolis production was induced in traditional and in modern hive-systems. They exposed the hives to the external environmental conditions, by creating gaps within the hive. Bees show the behavior of filling those openings and, as prior expected, the propolis yield was higher in manipulated hive-systems. They found not only a correlation between the data of local weather stations and the propolis production, but also a significantly higher amount of harvested propolis in traditional, compared to modern bee hives. The authors claim, that small, cost effective methods can help to increase the outcome significantly. [2] Thus, this simple method may be used to increase the propolis yield of small scale beekeepers. Similar to pollen, the Holeta Bee Research Center and the Ministry of Agriculture and International Livestock Research Institute communicated, that there is no business for propolis, but beekeepers sometimes harvest it for home consumption (medical use). [4]

Indonesia: Stingless bees of the genus Trigona are known to collect higher amounts of propolis, compared to Apis species, therefore, Indonesian beekeepers use mainly colonies of Trigona spp. for propolis production ("meliponiculture"; see: Non-Apis managed bees used for bee products). [5] In Indonesia, propolis is categorized as a herbal product and it is used for medical purposes. [6] The existing interest and the potential is reflected by studies, conducted to improve extraction methods of the product. [6] [7] According to local scientists (Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia), a propolis business exists. The product is sold mainly online and also can be found in local herbal drug stores (prizes). There is missing information on best harvesting time of propolis, how much propolis can be expected per colony, impact of propolis production on other bee products, factors that affect the propolis production, official numbers, etc.


  1. Gidey, Y., & Mekonen, T. (2010). Participatory Technology and Constraints Assessment to Improve the Livelihood of Beekeepers in Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science, 2(1), 76-92.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Nuru, A., Hepburn, H. R., & Radloff, S. E. (2002). Induction of propolis production by Apis mellifera bandasii in traditional basket and Langstroth movable-frame hives in Ethiopia. Journal of Apicultural Research, 41(3-4), 101–106.
  3. Taye, B., Desta, A., Girma, C., & Mekonen, W. T. (2016). Evaluation of transitional and modern hives for honey production in the Mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 64(1), 157–165.
  4. MoA & ILRI (2013). Apiculture value chain vision and strategy for Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ministry of Agriculture and International Livestock Research Institute.
  5. Agussalim, Umami, N., & Erwan (2015). Production of Stingless Bees (Trigona sp.) Propolis in Various Bee Hives Design. The 6th International Seminar on Tropical Animal Production, Integrated Approach in Developing Sustainable Tropical Animal Production. 335-338.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Hasan, A. E. Z., Mangunwidjaja, D., Sunarti, T. C., Suparno, O., & Setiyono, A. (2013). Optimasi Ekstraksi Propolis Menggunakan Cara Maserasi Dengan Pelarut Etanol 70% Dan Pemanasan Gelombang Mikro Serta Karakterisasinya Sebagai Bahan Antikanker Payudara. Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian, 23(1), 13-21.
  7. Wiwekiwati, & Walianto, S. (2017). Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Propolis Dari Yogyakarta Dalam Kedokteran Gigi. Seminar Nasional Riset Inovatif. 105-109.