Non-Apis managed bees used for bee products
While in Indonesia it is traditional practice to use stingless bees (Meliponidae), often from the genus Trigona spp., for honey and propolis production, in Ethiopia only few beekeepers house them in hives and it is more common to hunt feral colonies for their products (pers. communication with Holeta Bee Research Center). The colonies of stingless bees are arranged in nests that are situated in cavities of walls or at the underside of branches and in hollow trees.   In comparison to most Apis species, natural colonies of stingless bees can be very easily transferred into hives (mud pot, stone wall, bamboo hive). They produce beeswax, honey, as well as high amounts of pollen and propolis. In Ethiopia, the honey yield of 200 ml/colony/year can be expected. In comparison, there is no data on the amount of harvested products of Trigona from Indonesia.    While there is a list of over 40 stingless bee species for Indonesia (see Kahono et al., 2018),  the research on distribution and identification of stingless bees, native to Ethiopia, is still in progress and Meliponini are highly endangered due to widespread honey hunting (pers. communication with Holeta Bee Research Center).
English book giving advise on beekeeping with stingless bees can be requested here: The Director, International Stingless Bee Centre, University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. 
- Awraris, G. S., Yemisrach, G., Dejen, A., Nuru, A., Gebeyehu, G., & Workneh, A. (2012). Honey production systems (Apis mellifera L.) in Kaffa, Sheka and Bench-Maji zones of Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 4(19), 528-541.
- Gupta, R. K., Reybroeck, W., van Veen, J. W., & Gupta, A. (2014). Beekeeping for Poverty Alleviation and Livelihood Security: Vol. 1: Technological Aspects of Beekeeping. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands.
- Jensen, M. (2007). Beekeeping with Apis cerana indica. Some Important Aspects of Colony Management. Danish Beekeeping Association.
- Kahono, S., Chantawannakul, P., & Engel, M. S. (2018). Social Bees and the Current Status of Beekeeping in Indonesia. In book: Asian Beekeeping in the 21st Century. Springer, Singapore. 287-306.
- Kwapong, P., Aidoo, K., Combey, R., Karikari, A. (2010). Stingless Bees: Importance, Management and Utilisation: A Training Manual for Stingless Bee Keeping. UNIMAX MACMILLAN LTD, Ghana. ISBN 978-9988-0-4496-1
- Dewi, R. (2016). Produktivitas Lebah Trigona sp dengan Bahan Sarang yang Berbeda. Diploma thesis, Universitas Andalas.