Ethiopia: The country belongs to the largest honey producers in Africa and is among the top ten worldwide (Import/Export of honey bee products) and due to bimodal rains, honey can be harvested at least twice a year.   The annual honey production was estimated to 43,000 t/year with a potential honey production of about 550,000 t/year.    The potential annual honey production was estimated based on a nationwide modernization of the beesector (modern hive, increased number of hives/beekeeper, ...) Approximately, 95% of bee hives (hive types) in Ethiopia are traditional with low productivity.  According to Gemechis (2016) and MoARD (2007) traditional beehives produce around 5-8 kg honey  , while the average honey yield in modern hives ranges from 15-20 kg.   According to FAO, the average amount of honey per hive over 24 years was 7.55 kg and therefore is in agreement with the prior mentioned observations.  70-80% of produced honey is used for the production of tej (traditional beverage) and the remaining percentage is sold as table honey.    10% of honey is consumed directly by the beekeeping households, while the rest is sold for gaining income.  One major quality problem is the high moisture level of honey. Samples from all over the country revealed moisture content between 15.25% and 30.45%. The outcome varies with the type of used hives (traditional hives have 1.5-3.0% higher moisture content than modern hives) and the sample region (highly humid areas are more affected).  Honey from traditional hives is sometimes a mixture of pollen, wax and honey, because it is not common among some Ethiopian beekeepers to separate the crude honey from other components.   To the favoured storage materials for honey belong plastic bags, tins/barrels, plastic containers, clay/log pots and animal skin.  The leading honey and beeswax producing regions in Ethiopia include Oromia (41%), SNNPR (22%), Amara (21%) and Tigray (5%) (honey market value chain). 
According to FAO statistics (2018), the total volume of produced honey between the years of 1993 and 2004 increased constantly, but fluctuated afterwards: 24,000 t in 1993, 28,000 t in 1998, 40,900 t in 2004, and 42,000 t in 2008, 45,905 t in 2012, 0 t in 2013/2014 and 47,706 t in 2016.  As in the figure below, official data of FAO statistics (2018) also showed a honey production of 0 t in the years 2013 and 2014. 
The amount of produced honey per hive ranged between 6.86 kg in 1993 and 10.49 kg in 2006 with an average production of 7.55 kg/hive in the years 1993-2016 (figure below). 
Indonesia: Unfortunately, neither FAO, nor another statistical provider gives any data on the honey production of Indonesia. However, it is estimated, that Indonesia needs 3,750 t of honey per year, while there is a supply of only 500-2,000 t per year.   De Jong (2000) estimated the honey production in the region of Kalimantan (based on beekeeping with “honey boards”) between 53 kg and 267 kg per beekeeping operation (family) per year.  Shouten et al. (2019) assessed the beekeeping situation on 4 islands of Indonesia and found, that the mean annual honey yield from A. cerana beehives ranges from 0.5 kg to 5 kg per hive and strongly depends on the season. One surveyed beekeeper mentioned a three times higher honey yield when harvesting in the wet season compared to a dry season's yield. The authors claim, that those results should be interpreted with caution, because questioned beekeepers rarely kept records.  It has to be mentioned, that beekeeping in Indonesia is still considered to be a “part time farming activity” and therefore the beekeeping sector is still small. There are various forms of gaining honey, for example working with small colonies of stingless bees, or the practice of honey hunting of A. dorsata, where the forest honey is often consumed locally and therefore the data on the amount of harvested honey is not passed on for statistical assessments.  Further, the honey consumption per person per year is with 15 g very low.  There is less current information on the quality of Indonesian honey, but a study in 1988 revealed high moisture content between 20.7 and 36.3% (22 samples from Sumatran village markets) and adulteration with sucrose (cane sugar, or sugar syrup) in most of the samplings (biggest problems in beekeeping). In addition, some of the investigated honey samples were boiled to evaporate the water for a higher viscosity of the product, which led to a high hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content.  In consistence is a not yet published study bei Shouten et al. (in press) who described a mean moisture content of 24%.  According to a local scientist (Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia), Indonesian beekeepers sell their honey in two different forms, table honey (common honey packed in a glass jar) and nest honey, called “madu sarang” (honey sold including the whole comb). Selling nest honey is gaining more attractiveness, due to the widespread problem of honey adulteration.
For further information on the honey's import and export quotes see: Import/Export of honey bee products.
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- MoA & ILRI (2013). Apiculture value chain vision and strategy for Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ministry of Agriculture and International Livestock Research Institute.
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