# Import/Export of honey bee products

Based on the comparison of the import and export values (**honey** and **beeswax**), provided in following chapter, Ethiopia can be categorized as a net-export-country, while Indonesia is considered as net-import-country.

## Export of Honey

**Ethiopia:** The total volume of exported honey between the years of 2000 and 2013 increased constantly: 1 t in 2000, 19 t in 2004, 196 t in 2008 and 904 t in 2013. ^{[1]} With increasing honey export quantity, the export volume of Ethiopia reached more than 3.25 million USD (figure below). ^{[1]}

**Indonesia:** On average, the total amount of exported honey between the years of 2000 and 2012 increased, but decreased again in 2013: 32 t in 2000, 1,270 t in 2004, 2,000 t in 2008, 765 t in 2012 and 207 t in 2013. There is a tremendous peak in 2009 with 7,355 t of exported honey. According to FAO, the data was officially provided, nevertheless there is a lack of information, how such a high increase can be explained. ^{[1]} In 2013 the export volume of Indonesian honey reached 2.35 million USD (figure below). ^{[1]}

## Export of Beeswax

**Ethiopia:** From 1993 until 1998 the total volume of exported beeswax increased constantly (247 t in 1993 and 956 t in 1998), while the year after, until 2001, the export quota declined (267 t in 1999 and 53 t in 2001). Ever since, the total amount of exported beeswax is fluctuating: 233 t in 2002, 402 t in 2003, 321 t in 2006, 372 t in 2007, 365 t in 2012 and 341 t in 2013. ^{[1]} In 2013 the export volume of Ethiopian beeswax reached more than 2.69 million USD. Thus, according to FAO, the export value has almost doubled within 7 years (1.42 million USD in 2006), although the export quantity has not increased significantly (figure below). ^{[1]}

**Indonesia:** While the beeswax export quota of 1997 until 2013 are only based on estimations of the FAO, official data is available from 1961 to 1996. There are three major peaks in the years 1965 with 156 t, 1979 with 647 t and 1990 with a total amount of 1009 t. In the remaining years, the total volume of exported beeswax fluctuated. ^{[1]} The export volume of Indonesian beeswax reached 401,000 USD in 1979, while the FAO estimated no export of beeswax at all between the years 1997 and 2013 (0 USD) (figure below). ^{[1]}

## Import of Honey

**Ethiopia:** There are several peaks regarding the import volume of honey: 10 t in 2006, 28 t in 2008, 49 t in 2013. ^{[1]} While the value of imported honey was about 23,000 USD in 2012, the import volume of honey reached more than 198,000 USD in 2013. Thus, according to FAO, the export value increased almost 8.5 times within a year, while the export quantity grew 12 times (figure below). ^{[1]}

**Indonesia:** The data of the years 1961 to 2013 show fluctuations in the import quota of honey: 8 t in 1965, 124 t in 1970, 37 t in 1975, 97 t in 1980, 56 t in 1985, 217 t in 1990, 577 t in 1995, 747 t in 2000, 776 t in 2005, 15,595 t in 2010 and 2,177 t in 2013. However, among the mentioned years, there is an observable trend of an increasing amount of imported honey (figure below). ^{[1]} The import volume of honey reached over 8.33 million USD in 2013. ^{[1]}

## Import of Beeswax

**Ethiopia:** Regarding the import quota of beeswax in Ethiopia compared to those of honey, almost half of the years were not available at all. Focusing on the remaining data set, the import quantity fluctuates: 1 t in 2002, 2 t in 2004, 652 t in 2006, 0 t in 2008, 2 t in 2010 and 1,847 t in 2013. ^{[1]} Similar observations were made for the import value data of beeswax: 2,000 USD in 2002, 4,000 USD in 2004, 416,000 USD in 2006, 0 USD in 2008, 6,000 USD in 2010 and 3.43 million USD in 2013 (figure below). ^{[1]}

**Indonesia:** While the beeswax import quota of 1996 until 2013 is only based on estimations of the FAO, official data was provided from 1961 to 1995. Indonesians' import of beeswax fluctuated between 1961 and 1995, but in general, there is an observable trend of increasing demand on beeswax: 0 t in 1965, 7 t in 1970, 62 t in 1975, 27 t in 1980, 28 t in 1985, 107 t in 1990 and 82 t in 1995, with peaks in 1978 (102 t) and 1990 (107 t). ^{[1]} Regarding the import value of beeswax, there is a high variance within years: in the year 1975 Indonesia payed 29,000 USD for a total amount of 62 t of beeswax, while the import value reached 490,000 USD for 82 t in 1995 (figure below). ^{[1]}

## References

- ↑
^{1.00}^{1.01}^{1.02}^{1.03}^{1.04}^{1.05}^{1.06}^{1.07}^{1.08}^{1.09}^{1.10}^{1.11}^{1.12}^{1.13}^{1.14}^{1.15}^{1.16}^{1.17}^{1.18}^{1.19}^{1.20}^{1.21}^{1.22}^{1.23}FAO (2018). FAOSTAT database collections. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome. Access date: 23.04.2018. URL: http://faostat.fao.org