Locally adapted hive management interventions (good beekeeping practice)

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Ethiopia: In Ethiopia, there are decrees and proclamations by the government (pers. communication with HBRC): 1. Registration and control of pesticides, special Decree No. 20/1990 to lay a scheme of registration and control of hazardous chemicals to life and products of honeybees 2. Apiculture Resources Development and Protection Proclamation, No. 660/2009 for development and protection of apiculture resources.

Regarding scientific efforts, the Holeta Bee Research Center (HBRC) is the main institution for apicultural research, but since 2008, seven federal agricultural research centers and seventeen regional centers started to engage apicultural research activities. [1] [2] As mentioned in the chapters honey and hive types, 95% of the beekeepers use traditional hives, but most of HBRC's research is based on modern technology and modern management systems aiming the development of the bee sector in the country (pers. communication with HBRC). Nevertheless, results may not be adapted to the actual situation in the country and therefore more than one research institution is needed to cover the widely used traditional system on the one hand and further promote modern techniques on the other hand.

Indonesia Nationally formulated good beekeeping practices are unknown but literature promoting good beekeeping practices exist. Nevertheless, local beekeepers rely mostly on their experiences. PERHUTANI employed "field officers", who teach local beekeepers good beekeeping practices. Examples for existing literature: “Petunjuk Praktis Budidaya Lebah Madu (Apis cerana)/Beekeeping Practical Guideline (Apis cerana) ” “Petunjuk Praktis Budidaya Lebah Madu (Apis mellifera)/Beekeeping Practical Guideline (Apis mellifera)” and “Petunjuk Praktis Peralatan Budidaya Lebah Madu (Apis cerana and Apis mellifera)/Practical Guideline for Beekeeping Tools (Apis cerana and Apis mellifera)”, all by PERHUTANI, “Rumah lebah" from Traditional to Modern Medicine”, by Hutagalung, and “Produk-produk Lebah Madu dan Hasil Olahannya/Honey bee products and their derivatives”, by Jaya (pers. communication with Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia).

To achieve the goal of exporting honey bee products into the EU, certain quality standards have to be achieved. The Strategic Intervention Plan, written by SNV/Ethiopia in 2005 listed approaches to increase the quality of honey bee products. [3] It has to be mentioned, that those criteria are equally important for Ethiopia and Indonesia, as well as for every other non-EU-country.


  1. The use of antibiotics as a preventive measure is forbidden. If the use is necessary, you have to follow the instructions exactly and remove all supers from the hive.
  2. During honey flow periods, you should not feed supplementary sugar or sugar syrup.
  3. Remove all frames, containing fermented honey, or moldy pollen.
  4. To prevent tobacco taste and its tar residues, avoid the excessive use of a smoker while harvesting.
  5. To avoid high moisture content, only harvest frames that are at least 70% sealed.
  6. If necessary, use chemical repellents for harvesting carefully.
  7. Supplement food should be positioned on an upturned hive cover instead of putting it on the ground.
  8. The honey extraction should take place in a room that is protected from external moisture and honey bees.
  9. To avoid the rotting of the hive, all component parts (floor, walls partitions) should have a waterproofed surface.
  10. Do not heat honey above 40.6 °C to avoid the production of HMF (Hydroxymethylfurfural).
  11. Machines and containers have to be sealed with food-quality paint, or contain of stainless steel or food-quality plastic.
  12. Do not smoke during the honey extraction.
  13. To remove big pieces of wax, filter the honey after extracting process.
  14. Do not store honey in rooms with high temperature, nor at places exposed to the sun.
  15. To avoid the re-uptake of external moisture, be sure to properly seal/shut honey containers.
  16. Do not collect pollen during honey harvesting season.
  17. Working with food and non-food products requires separate steps.
  18. If hives are placed in a "honey house", do not clean it, until all honey has been stored in airtight containers.
  19. Chemical products (detergents, glue for labels, medicine, insecticides, herbicides, ...) have to be stored separately from the extraction room.
  20. Do not use used oil barrels (even when waxed).



  1. Amssalu, B. (2016). Apiculture Research Achievements, Challenges and Future Prospects in Ethiopia. In: Agricultural Research for Ethiopian Renaissance Challenges, Opportunities and Directions. Proceedings of the National Conference on Agricultural Research for Ethiopian Renaissance. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  2. Hailemichael, T. B. (2018). The status of beekeeping practices and honey production system in Ethiopia-a review. International Journal of Engineering Development and Research, 6(2), 581-585.
  3. SNV/Ethiopia (2005). Strategic intervention plan on honey & beeswax value-chains, snv support to business organizations and their access to markets (boam).