Bee forage

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The following chapter covers topics like local climate, number of melliferous plants and important literature, and major honey flows (plants, seasons). Nectar and pollen are key resources for honey bees and bees must be able to find sufficient quantity and quality within their foraging radii. The foraging radius depends on the bee race, the local climate as well as on the environment, but a benchmark of 3 km can be expected for European A. mellifera colonies. Not every blooming plant produces nectar AND pollen and they differ in terms of nectar and pollen production (protein content, quantity, quality and flowering time). In a consequence, a high diversity of bee forage around the apiary is from high importance for honey bee health and in a broader sense for the income of the beekeeper. The tropical climate of Ethiopia and Indonesia enables a high diversity in flora and fauna. While important literature on honey bee forage for Ethiopia exists and needs to be published for Indonesia, floral calendars for both countries are missing.