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Ethiopia: Depending on different classifications, there are three to five climate zones. The widely approved climate zones are: "Kolla" (hot zone; 1500 - 1800 m altitude) with an average temperature of 26 °C and an average rainfall of 300 - 700 mm, the flowering period is known to be short and therefore the honey bees are very productive as well as aggressive; "Woina-Dega" (cold-warm zone; 1,800 - 2,400 m altitude) with an average temperature of 22 °C and an average rainfall of 700 - 1,000 mm) and "Dega" (cold zone; 2,400 - 3,500 m altitude), where flowering occurs throughout the year, with an average temperature of 16 °C and an average rainfall of 1,000 - 1,200 mm. [1] [2] [3]. The remaining climate zones are: "Bereha" (<1,500 m altitude) with an average temperature of >26 °C and an average rainfall of <300 mm and "Worech" (>3,500 m altitude) with an average temperature of 12 °C and an average rainfall of 1,200 - 1,500 mm). While the highlands of Ethiopia are widely populated, the colder lowland region is only sparsely populated by nomadic and semi-nomadic herdsmen. [4] Winds, originating from over the Atlantic Ocean mark seasonal rainy periods resulting in most of its rainfall occurring in the highlands (mid-June to mid-September), as well as short periods of light rains. The second main rainy season occurs in April and May. [5]

Indonesia: The prevailing tropical climate is characterized by its high temperatures throughout the year, the small day- to day changes (high standing sun), droughts, excessive rain and high humidity. [6] [7] The average temperature is 26 °C and the average rainfall is at about 300 mm. [8] In addition, there are El Niño events in Indonesia, which lead to a later onset of the rainy season and drought events followed by unsecured food safety. [9] [10] [11] By analysing the Indonesian rainfall data of the years 1961-1990, and by comparing the results with those before 1960, Hamada et al. (2002) concluded that there are four major climatic subregions in Indonesia. The main part of Indonesia is situated in the southern hemisphere and is characterized by an annual cycle with its rainfall maximum during September to February. The regions situated near the equator or in the northern hemisphere show a semi-annual cycle with its annual rainfall maximum in September-November in western parts of the Kalimantan central mountains and a different annual cycle with a maximum during March-August (relatively small rainfall). The other areas of Indonesia are known to not have clearly defined rainy and dry seasons. [10]


  1. Bekele-Tesemma, A., & Tengnäs, B. (2007). Useful Trees and Shrubs of Ethiopia: Identification, Propagation, and Management for 17 Agroclimatic Zones. Relma in Icraf Project.
  2. Gupta, R. K., Reybroeck, W., van Veen, J. W., & Gupta, A. (2014). Beekeeping for Poverty Alleviation and Livelihood Security: Vol. 1: Technological Aspects of Beekeeping. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands.
  3. Gangwar, S. K., Gebremariam, H., Ebrahim, A., & Tajebe, S. (2010). Characteristics of Honey Produced by Different Plant Species in Ethiopia. Advances in Bioresearch, 1(1), 101-105.
  4. Le Houérou, H. N., & Corra, M. (1980). Some Browse Plants of Ethiopia. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa.
  5. Admasu, A., Kibebew, W., Ensermu, K., & Amssalu, B. (2014). Honeybee Forages of Ethiopia. Holeta Bee Research Center, Ethiopia.
  6. Seidel, D. J., Fu, Q., Randel, W. J., & Reichler, T. J. (2007). Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nature Geoscience, 1, 21–24.
  7. Crane, E. (1990). Bees and beekeeping: science, practice, and world resources. Ithaca, N.Y. : Comstock Pub. Associates.
  8. CCKP (2018). The World Bank Group, Climate Change Knowledge Portal database collection. Washington. URL (access date: 30.04.2018):
  9. Hamada, J.-I., Yamanaka, M. D., Matsumoto, J., Fujao S., Winarso, P. A., & Sribimawati, T. (2002). Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Rainy Season over Indonesia and their Link to ENSO. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 80(2), 285-310.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Hughen, K. A., Schrag, D. P., & Jacobsen, S. B. (1999). El Niño during the last interglacial period recorded by a fossil coral from Indonesia. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(20), 3129-3132.
  11. Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P., Rochberg, D., & Wada, N. (2001). Using El Niño/Southern Oscillation Climate Data To Predict Rice Production In Indonesia. Climate Change, 50, 255-265.