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There are several other pests, pathogens and predators affecting the health of honey bees:

Malpighamoeba mellificae (Amoebozoa; Malpighamoebidae) is known to be the causative agent of amoeba disease. M. mellificae is a single celled parasite affecting the malpighian tubules of honey bees. As a result, the life cycle of bees is shortened. [1]

Ethiopia: Within Ethiopia, the existence of M. mellificae has first been reported in 1998 by Amssalu and Desalegn, but it is considered as a negligible risk. [1] [2]

Indonesia: There is a lack of data regarding the status of M. mellificae in Indonesia!

Birds of the family Meropidae (Coraciiformes). A single bee eater is able to consume up to 600 honey bees per day. [3]

Ethiopia: Bee eaters are present within Ethiopia, but their occurence does not have a severe impact on local apiaries. They attack honey bee colonies especially during rainy seasons and beekeepers may decrease bird pressure by setting up scarecrows in their apiary. [3] [4] [5]

Indonesia: So far, there is no information on the impact of birds on honey bee health in Indonesia!

Mellivora capensis (Carnivora; Mustelidae). The honey badger breaks up the hive to rob the combs and feed on it. [6]

Ethiopia: The honey badger damages honey bee colonies in the months November to April due to increased brood and honey in the hives. [4] [7]

Indonesia: M. capensis is not present in Indonesia! [8]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Haylegebriel, T. (2014). Honey bee diseases, pest and their economic importance in Ethiopia. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 10(2), 527-535.
  2. Desalegn, B. (2015). Honeybee diseases and Pests research progress in Ethiopia: A review. African Journal of Insect, 3(1), 93-96.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Pirk, C. W. W., Strauss, U., Yusuf, A. A., Démares, F., & Human, H. (2015). Honeybee health in Africa—a review. Apidologie, 47(3), 276–300.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Awraris, G., S., Yemisrach, G., Dejen, A., Nuru, A., Gebeyehu, G., & Workneh, A. (2012). Honey production systems (Apis mellifera L.) in Kaffa, Sheka and Bench-Maji zones of Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 4(19), 528-541.
  5. Teklu, G. W. (2016). Survey on honeybee pests and predators in Sidama and Gedeo zones of Southern Ethiopia with emphasis on control practices. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 7(4), 173-181.
  6. Crane, E. (1990). Bees and beekeeping: science, practice, and world resources. Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Pub. Associates.
  7. Gidey, Y., Bethelhem, K., Dawit, K., & Alem, M. (2012). Assessment of beekeeping practices in Asgede Tsimbla district, Northern Ethiopia: Absconding, bee forage and bee pests. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(1), 1-5.
  8. Jana, M., Vanderhaar, J. M., Hwang, Y. T. (2003). Mellivora capensis. Mammalian Species, 721, 1-8.