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Nosema spp. (Dissociodihaplophasida; Nosematidae) is known to be a parasitic microsporidian and the causative agent of nosemosis. [1] The infectious non-germinated spore of the pathogen is transmitted through the oral-faecal route of adult bees, or through mating. The most popular treatment in many countries is "fumagillin". While N. apis has a relatively wide distribution with a prevalence for colder climate, N. ceranae is mostly prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics. [2]

Ethiopia: Nosema existence in Ethiopia has been reported for the first time in 1989 by the Holeta Bee Research Center (HBRC), Holeta. In a study by Desalegn and Amssalu (2015) over 200 honey bee colonies from all over Ethiopia were analysed and 37% were tested positive for N. apis. They further investigated the severity of an infestation and concluded, that this disease is considered to be a negligible risk for Ethiopian honey bee colonies. [2] [3][4] Nothing is known about the presence of N. ceranae in Ethiopia.

Indonesia: N. ceranae is present but there is a lack of data regarding the dangerousness and treating methods of the pathogen, indicating that Nosema to our current knowledge represents a negligible risk in Indonesia. [4] [5] [6] Nothing is known about the presence of N. apis in Indonesia.


  1. Morse, R. A., & Nowogrodzki, R. (1990). Honey Bee Pests, Predators, and Diseases (2nd edition). Comstock Publishing Associates, USA.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mumoki, F. N., Fombong, A., Muli, E., Muigai, A. W. T., & Masiga, D. (2014). An Inventory of Documented Diseases of African Honeybees. African Entomology, 22(3), 473–487.
  3. Desalegn, B. (2015). Honeybee diseases and Pests research progress in Ethiopia: A review. African Journal of Insect, 3(1), 93-96.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ellis, J. D., & Munn, P. A. (2005). The worldwide health status of honey bees. Bee World, 86(4), 88–101.
  5. Botías, C., Anderson, D. L., Meana, A., Garrido-Bailón, E., Martín-Hernández, R., & Higes, M. (2012). Further evidence of an oriental origin for Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia: Nosematidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 110(1), 108–113.
  6. Wilson, W. T., & Nunamaker, R. A. (1983). The Incidence of Nosema apis in Honeybees in Mexico. Bee World, 64(3), 132–136.