Ascosphaera apis (Onygenales; Ascosphaeraceae) is known to be a heterothallic fungi and the causative agent of the chalkbrood disease. Germinated spores in the intestinal tract of the brood lead to a mummification of the host. If untreated, the pathogen causes death of infected brood due to enzymatic toxicological and mechanical damage.   The colour of the mummies varies between white and black and the disease is in general not considered to be a problem for healthy colonoes. It is suggested for beekeepers to provide good ventilation within the beehives to limit the effects of the Chalkbrood disease 
Ethiopia: A. apis is present and its geographical distribution and infestation rate is unequal within Ethiopia. Desalegn (2006) surveyed apiaries around Holeta and found that chalkbrood occurred in 17.4% of inspected honey bee colonies.  Unfortunately, only cryptic information is available on chalkbrood disease in Ethiopia (e.g. treatment options, distribution pattern, severity, ...).   According to a local scientist, chalkbrood is nowadays common in Ethiopian honey bee colonies, but the disease seems to have minor effects on the colonies, and therefore no treatment is applied (pers. communication with the Holeta Bee Research Center).
Indonesia: No information is available on chalkbrood disease in Indonesia!
- Morse, R. A., & Nowogrodzki, R. (1990). Honey Bee Pests, Predators, and Diseases (2nd edition). Comstock Publishing Associates, USA.
- Mumoki, F. N., Fombong, A., Muli, E., Muigai, A. W. T., & Masiga, D. (2014). An Inventory of Documented Diseases of African Honeybees. African Entomology, 22(3), 473–487.
- Kugonza, D.R. (2020). Africa under attack: a continent-wide mapping of pathogens, parasites and predators afflicting the hived honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). African Journal of Rural Development 5(2), 1-27.
- Desalegn, B. R. (2006). Chalk Brood in Ethiopia. Bees for Development Journal, 78, 8.
- Haylegebriel, T. (2014). Honey bee diseases, pest and their economic importance in Ethiopia. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 10(2), 527-535.
- Pirk, C. W. W., Strauss, U., Yusuf, A. A., Démares, F., & Human, H. (2015). Honeybee health in Africa—a review. Apidologie, 47(3), 276–300.