SAMS - Main Results

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UCD (User Centred Design) Glossary

Within the SAMS project, a UCD Glossary was developed to make sure that the project team has the same understanding of UCD terminologies. In order to make the UCD collaborative process more understandable, Some of the terms in the UCD Glossary was enriched with stories on how the terms and methodologies were used within the SAMS project.

To find out more, please visit this SAMSwiki page.


Persona is a description of a user and what he or she intends to do when using an interactive system. Personas are not real; they are examples invented to stand for real users based on empirically determined data, for example, from observations or interviews." The SAMS monitoring system development depends on the beekeepers’ background and context factors, for example, types of modern beehives they use, bee types they breed, electricity availability in their beekeeping site, and how deep they are personally influenced by beekeeping traditions and by their cultural environment and family traditions. Based on the results of the context of use analysis in the Field Research (Stage 1), following personas, collectively represent the major behaviours of beekeepers in Ethiopia and Indonesia.

To find out more, please visit this SAMSwiki page.

Decision Support System (DSS)

In general, DSS can be defined as any system that assists in any kind of decision making. DSS is used to support the decision-makers mainly, but not to replace them. In this case to assist the beekeepers in their daily apiary management. In other words, DSS is a system, which is used for automatic data analysis with the main aim to recognize the status of the monitored object. DSS can help to automatically identify different bee colony states and inform the beekeeper if some activities are necessary.

To find out more, including the DSS interface and DSS Figma link, please visit this SAMSwiki page.

Data Warehouse (DW)

The Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies team developed a basic instruction on how to connect general bee colony monitoring hardware to SAMS Data Warehouse (DW). This instruction will ease the process of sending data from any general bee colony monitoring system to the SAMS Data Warehouse for storage and analysis. The Data Warehouse is an online platform which functions like a virtual workspace, where beekeepers can store, access and assess their bee data. The SAMS DW is a universal system, which can operate with different data inputs and have flexible data processing algorithms. Users can sign up into the DW using their own email/password or google account.

To find out more, please visit this SAMSwiki page.

SAMS system

At the University of Kassel, the team of the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering developed a bee monitoring system based on a RaspberryPi Zero W. Weight, temperature and humidity data as well as frequency spectra of the sounds in the bee colony can be recorded at userdefined measurement intervals. Our colleagues from the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies developed a system based on a NodeMCU that is also designed to measure temperature, weight and humidity more energy efficient but does not use acoustic recording. The data can be accessed and visualised in the SAMS Data Warehouse.

To learn more, please visit this SAMSwiki page.

NodeMCU system

For bee colony monitoring, besides the SAMS HIVE monitoring system that is based on the Raspberry Pi Zero W, a simplified version was developed for ESP8266 microchip based platforms like the NodeMCU. The system measures temperature, humidity and weight. The collected data is being sent to the remote SAMS data warehouse ( The source code is open-source and can be found at For more information, check out the manual (Annex X).

Github sources for SAMS system and SAMS Data Warehouse (individual adaption)

The developed IT solutions (SAMS DW and SAMS HIVE monitoring systems) are all open-source and can be found at that contains all repositories:

PCB file

The PCB files for SAMS HIVE monitoring system based on Raspberry Pi Zero W are accessible here

The PCB related files (BOM and Gerber) for SAMS HIVE monitoring system that is based on the ESP8266 WiFi microchip, can be found at here

SAMS DSS APP for Ethiopian beekeepers

Purpose of the app

This app was developed for the beekeepers in Ethiopia. The beekeepers have been requesting to access the information produced by the SAMS hives. We designed a simple mobile app to show the info about their hives (weight, temperature and humidity).

To find out more, please visit this SAMSwiki page.

The app can be downloaded through this link

Free file for printable 3D sensor case

For the SAMS system a case has been designed that can be produced with standard 3D printers. The open source 3D models can be found on our SAMS Github page. Github sources for SAMS system and SAMS Data Warehouse (individual adaption) On our SAMS Github page you will find all the relevant files for the implementation of the SAMS system and the SAMS Data Warehouse.

SAMS Partnerships

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SAMS Business Models

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Within the SAMS project, dissemination was one major pillar of our work. The consortium members visited many scientific events, including conferences, webinars, meetings, etc.. Further, the project was disseminated trough media platforms, a quarterly published newsletter, general promotion material and several scientific and non-scientific publications. They all can be found at theproject website

SAMS conference videos – YouTube channel

In November 2020, the SAMS team was hosting an online conference "SAMS Conference – ICT in Apiculture". Team members presented the outcome of the SAMS project with informative talks, which are accessible via the SAMS YouTube channel. We managed to embed the corresponding videos on our SAMSwiki. The videos perfectly demonstrate the SAMS hardware, software and further explain the implementation processes.

Please visit this SAMSwiki page if you like to check out the videos.

Capacity Building and related material

Within the SAMS project many people from Indonesia, Ethiopia and Europe were trained in SAMS system and bee related topics. As the trainings were mostly conducted locally, some of the training materials are available in local languages.

If you wish to download the CB material, please visit this SAMSwiki page.