Difference between revisions of "SAMS-system based recommendations/management options"

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(Created page with " == '''https://sams-project.eu/''' '''Twitter account: @SAMS_EU_H2020'''== ---- SAMS is a multi-national, interdisciplinary three-year project, which goal...")
 
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'''<big>1. Mass nectar flow:</big>''' [[File:SAMSScenarioIllustrationMassNectarFlowByPerempuangimbal.png|right|500px|SAMS-system based recommendations for a mass nectar flow event(illustration: Perempuangimbal/LabtekIndie/SAMS project). ]]
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<br />
  
== '''https://sams-project.eu/'''                   '''Twitter account: @SAMS_EU_H2020'''==
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* '''Explanation:''' during '''[[Biological definitions|nectar flow]]''' bees collect nectar and pollen to sustain their colony. If a major nectar flow is in bloom, bees are able to collect the nectar in high abundances. The surplus of nectar is converted into honey and stored in the hive. 
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<br />
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* '''Output SAMS-system:''' increase in weight by a certain percentage (e.g. 10%) compared to the average weight data of the last few days. The percentage value may be country- or operation depending.
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<br />
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* '''Recommendations:'''  
 +
** Take a look into the hive
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** Check if the honey is ripe (when >70% of the frame is sealed; no brood on the frame): use a refractometer or do a shake test (turn the honey frame horizontally and shake it jerkily -if sphlashes are observable, the honey needs more time)
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**extract the honey and leave enough forage to the bees
 +
**protect your product from direct sunlight and store it in a dry surrounding<br />
 +
** If the honey is not ready yet, do nothing and close the hive
 
----
 
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SAMS is a multi-national, interdisciplinary three-year project, which goal it is to apply IoT technology for precision apiculture in beehives located in tropical regions in order to achieve active monitoring for beekeeping improvements. It enhances international cooperation of ICT and sustainable agriculture between the SAMS partner from Ethiopia, Indonesia, Latvia, Austria and Germany since January 2018. Bee health and sustainable beekeeping are a key for sustainable agriculture worldwide but the degradation of pollination power of suffering the bee colonies threats overall agricultural production and affects entire population. In addition risks of depleting honey production threatens livelihoods of beekeepers.
 
  
The idea behind SAMS is to develop an appropriate and adapted ICT solution (open-source) for beekeepers to allow an active monitoring and remote sensing of their bee colonies from wherever they are.  Beekeeping with small-scale operations provides perfect innovation labs for demonstration and dissemination of cheap and easy-to-use open source ICT applications. An integrated Advisory and Decision Support system shall support the beekeeper in ensuring the bee health and bee productivity of their colonies. The recommendations, provided to the beekeeper, are based on the evaluation of the gained beehive data and are related to the country specific questions and/or context settings. The already collected beehive data is available in the  SAMS Data Warehouse, which is a universal system, able to operate with different data inputs and have flexible data processing algorithms. Complementary to the Data Warehouse, a SAMS bee-management and bee-health database, including 10 Golden Rules of Honeybee Management, to increase the quality of honeybee products (e.g. honey) and improvement the health of honeybee colonies, has been established.
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'''<big>2. Absconding:</big>''' [[File:SAMSScenarioIllustrationAbscondingByPerempuangimbal.png|right|500px|SAMS-system based recommendations for absconding behavior(illustration: Perempuangimbal/LabtekIndie/SAMS project). ]]
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<br />
  
The primary success factor for SAMS is to develop solutions that are understandable and useable for all user groups, beekeepers as well as scientist and commercial users. The partner countries Indonesia and Ethiopia are quite divergent in culture and other preconditions, which influences the development of above mentioned support tools differently. Therefore, a team of local experts analyze requirements in each country.
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* '''Explanation:''' '''[[Biological definitions|Absconding]]''' behavior occurs when the environmental conditions for bees are unfavorable (food shortage, disease/pesticide pressure). As a result, the honey bees leave their nest/hive and leave food and brood behind. The behavior is mainly observed in tropical regions.
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<br />
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* '''Output SAMS-system:''' Theoretically, absconding should be determined by temperature and weight data. After absconding happened, there are no “living beings” that could perform thermoregulation inside the hive, therefore a noticeable weight and temperature reduction should be observed.
 +
<br />
 +
* '''Recommendations:'''
 +
** Take a look into the hive
 +
** If absconding has not taken place yet, revitalize with two frames containing adult bees, brood and pollen
 +
** Alternatively, requeen the colony
 +
** If the colony already absconded think of sanitation decisions. A sanitation decision includes the cleaning and disinfection of the affected hive to avoid disease-transfer. Possible methods are to flame-scarf the inside of the hive (frames and equipment), or to use chemicals (bleach, costic soda, similar substances...). Please adhere to the instructions and work carefully.
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Hereby SAMS follows the User Centered Design approach to promote and advance forms of existing beekeeping while ensuring, that needs, demands and limitations of end users are major focus in all steps of the development and to be able to adapt the system accordingly to the country context.
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'''<big>3. Broodless state</big>''' [[File:SAMSScenarioIllustrationBroodlessByPerempuangimbal.png|right|400px|SAMS-system based recommendations for bee colonies without brood (illustration: Perempuangimbal/LabtekIndie/SAMS project).]]
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<br />
  
[[File:UCD.JPG|center|200pxl]]
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* '''Explanation:''' A '''[[Biological definitions|Broodless state]]''' is defined as a bee colony without brood (eggs, larvae or pupae). Natural broodless states occur in healthy bee colonies, are country depending and emerge during dearth periods (winter, dry season, rainy season…) or concern colonies who have recently swarmed and have no mated queen yet. Besides, broodless states can also occur unnaturally during the active brood rearing cycles of honey bees. Most of the time unnatural broodless states or nearly broodless states are related to the manipulation of the beekeeper, for example by using substances for varroa mite control (formic acid). Cases that are not related to the mentioned scenarios most often have a pathological origin Either way, broodless states should be investigated <ref>Crane, E. (1990). Bees and beekeeping: science, practice, and world resources. Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Pub. Associates.</ref>
The SAMS UCD approach foresees the following specific implementation actions are:
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<br />
*    Identify preconditions, potentials and user´s needs through research and context analysis in SAMS partner countries
 
*    Include end-user in solution development of the (1) Advisory and (2) Decision Support System through SAMS User Centered Design Cycles
 
*    Set up first pilot proto-hives for further iterations and adaptions of the developed ICT solution to regional settings and users’ needs
 
*    Enable the end-user to monitor and manage bee colonies in a sustainable and efficient way by taking also bee-health aspects in consideration
 
*    Development of business concepts along the bee value chain
 
  
The UCD process iterates until the user requirements are met and goes hand in hand with locally conducted Capacity Development measures. Capacity Development measures are specifically conducted for modern beehive construction including use and maintenance of the related IT-systems, the use and optimization of the Decision Support System and to raise awairness for specific bee-health as well as bee-management aspects among beekeepers.
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* '''Output SAMS-system:''' This state could be detected by monitoring the temperature. During brood rearing bees try to maintain stable temperatures (34-36°C), but in broodless states the temperature inside the hive tends to depend on the ambient temperature <ref>Stalidzans E., Berzonis A. (2013) Temperature Changes above the Upper Hive Body Reveal the Annual Development Periods of Honey Bee Colonies, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 90, 1–6.</ref>.
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<br />
  
== Three continents – three scenarios ==
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* '''Recommendations:'''
 +
** Note: epending on the season and climate zone, broodless states are desired (e.g. winter in temperate zones)
 +
** Unexpected broodless state: take a look into the hive
 +
** Add frames containing adult bees, open brood (eggs and larvae) to the broodless colony
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----
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'''<big>4. Death</big>''' [[File:SAMSScenarioIllustrationDeathByPerempuangimbal.png|right|400px|SAMS-system based recommendations for dead bee colonies (illustration: Perempuangimbal/LabtekIndie/SAMS project).]]
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<br />
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* '''Explanation:''' Colony death has a variety of reasons and reach from diseases or pests affecting the colony, over starvation to high exposure of pesticides. Depending on the cause of death, the appearance of a dead colony also differs. For example, in CCD, there are almost no dead bees around the hive, while it is the case if the colony was affected by a pest or pathogen. In the latter case, the sister bees clean their hive from sick bees to counteract the threatening organisms. In comparison, poisoned bees, for example through pesticides, are abundantly found in the hive.
 +
<br />
 +
 
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* '''Output SAMS-system:''' Death of the colony can be detected by the temperature measurement or/ and by sound. Death detection could involve a comparison between real-time colony temperature with the environmental temperature and if the difference is not significant, then it can be concluded that the colony is dead.
 +
<br />
 +
 
 +
* '''Recommendations:'''
 +
** Take a look into the hive
 +
** If the colony died: '''close the hive entrance'''; hives without bees attract robbing bees from neighbouring colonies (risk of disease-transfer or transfer of toxic substances).
 +
** Sanitation of the hive (frames and equipment) by cleaning (flame-scarf) and disinfection (bleach, costic soda, similar substances...).
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 +
 
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----
  
# Africa – Ethiopia: Beekeepers have a limited access to modern beehive equipment and bee management systems and the apicultural sector is far behind his potential.
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==References==
# Asia – Indonesia: A weak beekeeper rate, a low rate of professional processing, support and marketing lead to a slow development of the apicultural sector.
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<references/>
# Europe - Consumption and trading of honey products are increasing whereas the production is stagnating and pollination services are less developed
 

Latest revision as of 11:37, 25 November 2019

1. Mass nectar flow:
SAMS-system based recommendations for a mass nectar flow event(illustration: Perempuangimbal/LabtekIndie/SAMS project).


  • Explanation: during nectar flow bees collect nectar and pollen to sustain their colony. If a major nectar flow is in bloom, bees are able to collect the nectar in high abundances. The surplus of nectar is converted into honey and stored in the hive.


  • Output SAMS-system: increase in weight by a certain percentage (e.g. 10%) compared to the average weight data of the last few days. The percentage value may be country- or operation depending.


  • Recommendations:
    • Take a look into the hive
    • Check if the honey is ripe (when >70% of the frame is sealed; no brood on the frame): use a refractometer or do a shake test (turn the honey frame horizontally and shake it jerkily -if sphlashes are observable, the honey needs more time)
    • extract the honey and leave enough forage to the bees
    • protect your product from direct sunlight and store it in a dry surrounding
    • If the honey is not ready yet, do nothing and close the hive

2. Absconding:
SAMS-system based recommendations for absconding behavior(illustration: Perempuangimbal/LabtekIndie/SAMS project).


  • Explanation: Absconding behavior occurs when the environmental conditions for bees are unfavorable (food shortage, disease/pesticide pressure). As a result, the honey bees leave their nest/hive and leave food and brood behind. The behavior is mainly observed in tropical regions.


  • Output SAMS-system: Theoretically, absconding should be determined by temperature and weight data. After absconding happened, there are no “living beings” that could perform thermoregulation inside the hive, therefore a noticeable weight and temperature reduction should be observed.


  • Recommendations:
    • Take a look into the hive
    • If absconding has not taken place yet, revitalize with two frames containing adult bees, brood and pollen
    • Alternatively, requeen the colony
    • If the colony already absconded think of sanitation decisions. A sanitation decision includes the cleaning and disinfection of the affected hive to avoid disease-transfer. Possible methods are to flame-scarf the inside of the hive (frames and equipment), or to use chemicals (bleach, costic soda, similar substances...). Please adhere to the instructions and work carefully.

3. Broodless state
SAMS-system based recommendations for bee colonies without brood (illustration: Perempuangimbal/LabtekIndie/SAMS project).


  • Explanation: A Broodless state is defined as a bee colony without brood (eggs, larvae or pupae). Natural broodless states occur in healthy bee colonies, are country depending and emerge during dearth periods (winter, dry season, rainy season…) or concern colonies who have recently swarmed and have no mated queen yet. Besides, broodless states can also occur unnaturally during the active brood rearing cycles of honey bees. Most of the time unnatural broodless states or nearly broodless states are related to the manipulation of the beekeeper, for example by using substances for varroa mite control (formic acid). Cases that are not related to the mentioned scenarios most often have a pathological origin Either way, broodless states should be investigated [1]


  • Output SAMS-system: This state could be detected by monitoring the temperature. During brood rearing bees try to maintain stable temperatures (34-36°C), but in broodless states the temperature inside the hive tends to depend on the ambient temperature [2].


  • Recommendations:
    • Note: epending on the season and climate zone, broodless states are desired (e.g. winter in temperate zones)
    • Unexpected broodless state: take a look into the hive
    • Add frames containing adult bees, open brood (eggs and larvae) to the broodless colony








4. Death
SAMS-system based recommendations for dead bee colonies (illustration: Perempuangimbal/LabtekIndie/SAMS project).


  • Explanation: Colony death has a variety of reasons and reach from diseases or pests affecting the colony, over starvation to high exposure of pesticides. Depending on the cause of death, the appearance of a dead colony also differs. For example, in CCD, there are almost no dead bees around the hive, while it is the case if the colony was affected by a pest or pathogen. In the latter case, the sister bees clean their hive from sick bees to counteract the threatening organisms. In comparison, poisoned bees, for example through pesticides, are abundantly found in the hive.


  • Output SAMS-system: Death of the colony can be detected by the temperature measurement or/ and by sound. Death detection could involve a comparison between real-time colony temperature with the environmental temperature and if the difference is not significant, then it can be concluded that the colony is dead.


  • Recommendations:
    • Take a look into the hive
    • If the colony died: close the hive entrance; hives without bees attract robbing bees from neighbouring colonies (risk of disease-transfer or transfer of toxic substances).
    • Sanitation of the hive (frames and equipment) by cleaning (flame-scarf) and disinfection (bleach, costic soda, similar substances...).









References

  1. Crane, E. (1990). Bees and beekeeping: science, practice, and world resources. Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Pub. Associates.
  2. Stalidzans E., Berzonis A. (2013) Temperature Changes above the Upper Hive Body Reveal the Annual Development Periods of Honey Bee Colonies, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 90, 1–6.